Werner Baller, founder of Weba Chute Systems, passed away on 15 December 2023 leaving behind him a remarkable legacy. 

Werner, born in 1940 in Brotdhof, West Germany, embarked on a journey that not only changed his life but also revolutionised the bulk material handling industry across the world. With his National Diploma in Ceramic Engineering from Koblens / Rhein, Hoergrenshausen, Werner’s pursuit of excellence took him to South Africa in 1965, marking the beginning of a remarkable legacy.

The Rise of Weba Chute Systems

In 1983, Werner’s entrepreneurial spirit led him to acquire a small mining supply firm, M&J Engineering. His visionary approach transformed this company into Weba Chute Systems, a global leader in custom engineered chute systems for bulk material transfer. Werner’s innovative mindset resulted in the development of nine patented products, including the groundbreaking Weba Chute System, which revolutionised the industry with its unique ‘super tube’ or cascade design.

A Legacy Beyond Engineering

Werner was more than an entrepreneur and engineer; he was a beloved family man known for his passion, integrity and unconditional love. His legacy extends beyond his professional achievements, embodying the values of honesty and dedication in every aspect of his life.

Continuing the Legacy

Today, Weba Chute Systems, under the leadership of Werner’s son, Mark Baller, continues to be an industry leader, exemplifying the innovation and quality that Werner instilled. His induction into the International Mining Technology Hall of Fame in 2018 is a testament to his enduring impact on the industry.

A Tribute to a True Pioneer

Werner’s journey from a small German town to the pinnacle of engineering innovation is a story of determination, ingenuity and unwavering commitment. His contributions have left an indelible mark on the mining and engineering industries, and his legacy will continue to inspire future generations.

As we bid farewell to a remarkable man, we remember Werner Baller not only for his professional achievements but for the profound personal impact he had on those around him. His life’s work stands as a beacon of entrepreneurial spirit and engineering excellence.

Werner Baller (1940-2024), Founder of Weba Chute Systems, Innovator, Entrepreneur, Family Man.


Leading underground mining contractor Murray & Roberts Cementation and its client Palabora Mining Company (PMC) celebrated the last blast at the new ventilation shaft, which took its depth to a final 1,200 metres below surface on 9 January 2024. 

The 8.5 metre diameter upcast vent shaft – which holed through to an already developed return air way at depth – is vital to PMC’s Lift II project. Lift II will develop access to ore resources sufficient to extend the life of this copper mine beyond 2040. Murray & Roberts Cementation Senior Project Manager Fred Durand says a key achievement was the project’s fatality free record, earned over more than a million hours worked.

“The achievement of a million fatality free hours – reached in November 2023 – is more than just a number,” says Durand. “It reflects the deep-rooted safety culture that has permeated every aspect of the project.” 

The innovative sinking methods, used for the first time in South Africa, were also carefully focused on achieving zero harm. Murray & Roberts Cementation employed its Canadian shaft sinking methodology, adapted to what became called ‘the PMC way’. This method included an innovative solution to poor ground conditions, where the sidewall of the shaft was closed up within 48 hours by means of the shaft concrete lining after every three metres of advance.

“Among the improvements that this facilitated was the removal of the hazardous work by rock drill operators at the shaft bottom, who would traditionally have to install temporary support,” he explains. “We also decided not to conduct concurrent work in the shaft, so there was no risk of danger to anyone below when work was carried out from the stage.”

He emphasises the close collaboration between Murray & Roberts Cementation and PMC to ensure the success and safety of the shaft sinking. The project was significant insofar as there were many lessons learnt which could be taken forward into future projects, he says, further improving the safety record of shaft sinking practice. 

“We are already looking ahead to two more important shaft sinking projects within the South African mining sector, where there is potential for certain of these learnings to be applied,” says Durand. A veteran of over 15 shaft sinking projects around Africa during his career, he admits finding aspects of the PMC way initially quite unusual when he joined the project in 2022. 

“Ultimately, though, we all want to deliver safe projects, so there are many brilliant ideas that we have proven on this project,” he says. “These strategies have been combined with the company’s leading mining and engineering expertise, and made us very excited about the future of shaft sinking and contract mining.”

To facilitate streamlined programming on the project, the work ran on continuous operations with two 12 hour shifts. He notes that this improves on the usual eight hour shift system, which requires three shift changes – each change taking up valuable project time. The two-shift system requires only a morning and evening change.

The vent shaft will replace the two existing vent shafts from the Lift I project, which are likely to be affected as they are in the Lift I zone of influence. In the final stages of the project, Murray & Roberts Cementation will strip out its services from the shaft, lift out the stage and dismantle the headgear. Final demobilisation of the company’s infrastructure will be carried out during the first quarter of 2024, says Durand.


Weir Minerals Africa recently manufactured a 20-way cluster of Cavex® 500 CVX hydrocyclones. This hydrocyclone delivers exceptional operational efficiencies, reduced wear and consistent metallurgical performance. With a design built for longevity, this unit is anticipated to exceed a 20 year lifespan because of its easily replaceable wear parts that ensure peak performance throughout its service life.

The hydrocyclone cluster was specifically tailored to the classification and processing requirements of a gold project in West Africa. Lerato Ramanala, Product Manager Hydrocyclones at Weir Minerals Africa, says it will be used in a milling application as part of a flowsheet with an HPGR and ball mill – the Cavex® hydrocyclones will classify the mill discharge. Operating at a relatively low pressure of 73 kPa, the hydrocyclones are meticulously engineered to minimise equipment wear under demanding conditions.

“Our design process considered factors such as port sizes and pipe schedules, ensuring obstruction-free operation, even under challenging conditions in which the hydrocyclones have to contend with a wide range of particle sizes. The feed and discharge pipes were engineered to accommodate the required flow rate and pressure, maintaining a launder geometry that ensures optimal slurry levels during regular operation, without any spillage during normal and design operation,” she explains.

The hydrocyclone cluster operates efficiently: the overflow goes to the trash screen, the underflow launder diverts the discharge, returning some to the ball mill for further grinding, while the other portion is fed to a gravity circuit.

Ramanala says the hydrocyclone cluster is custom-engineered featuring Cavex® hydrocyclones, Linatex® rubber linings and Isogate® WR valves. The Cavex® hydrocyclone features an innovative 360⁰ laminar spiral inlet that significantly enhances separation performance.

“To prolong wear life and reduce the need for frequent replacements, we’ve used R55 rubber, a patented Weir Minerals material, in the hydrocyclones’ rubber inserts,” she adds.

To address abrasion resistance, Linatex® premium rubber, known to consistently outperform other rubber materials in abrasive wet processing applications, was selected. The integration of Linatex® rubber minimises maintenance requirements and guarantees optimal equipment performance.

The Isogate® WR valve is a lightweight valve designed for a hydrocyclone cluster of this size, featuring advanced rubber sleeve technology for improved wear life and full bore design for unrestricted flow.

“Notably, this is the first greenfield cluster to incorporate Synertrex IIoT technology for performance monitoring, specifically to detect any roping or splashing events,” Ramanala says. This proactive performance monitoring platform enhances the overall effectiveness of the Cavex® hydrocyclones by providing accurate data on cyclone performance, supporting the operator in maintaining optimal operating conditions, and enabling proactive intervention for unforeseen incidents.

“Synertrex is much more than a condition monitoring system for individual pieces of equipment. As the technology continues to develop and Weir Minerals works to leverage the equipment and process data it alone has as the OEM, its customers are increasingly seeing it as the preferred partner for intelligent solutions and digitally-enabled services,” she says.

Hydrocyclones provide cost efficient separation in mineral processing applications, especially compared to traditional screens. Even with its substantial size, a cluster of this magnitude maintains a more compact overall footprint, facilitating space optimisation within the process plant while still achieving the necessary cut point.

Weir Minerals Africa’s experienced local team carefully analysed operational requirements, flow rates and pressure differentials when designing this Cavex® hydrocyclone cluster to maximise efficiency and meet required throughput rates. Structural integrity was a primary focus due to the cluster’s large size, and extensive use was made of computer-aided design (CAD) to ensure a robust design capable of withstanding demanding conditions. The structural design includes walkways, support beams and bracing mechanisms. The large cluster was manufactured at Weir Minerals Africa’s facility, undergoing trial assembly and quality checks before being disassembled and packaged for shipment to the customer. Installation on-site will be part of the greenfields process plant construction project, with Weir Minerals Africa specialists readily available for installation and commissioning support.


The commitment to Corporate Social Investment (CSI) should go beyond mere compliance and obligatory tick boxes, according to Brenton Spies, Managing Director of Booyco Engineering. According to Spies, the company has entrenched a genuine focus on lending substantive support to non-profit organisations dedicated to uplifting women and girls, forming a central part of Booyco Engineering’s corporate ethos.

For several years, Booyco Engineering has contributed significantly to the Frida Hartley Shelter located in Yeoville, Johannesburg. The shelter serves as a haven for homeless women and their children, who often bear the scars of neglect, abuse, trauma and incessant hardships of life on the streets. It also supports women who have lost employment, young homeless mothers striving for a fresh start and individuals navigating through financial turmoil due to retrenchment or unemployment.

Spies says that the Frida Hartley Shelter is not just a shelter; it is a platform for empowerment and renewal. The non-profit organisation offers more than just accommodation. Women at the shelter receive crucial psycho-social support, employment assistance and access to training programmes designed to equip them with skills for a better future. Further and importantly, the shelter ensures children accompanying their mothers receive proper nutrition and childcare. This provision allows mothers to focus on job-hunting and rebuilding their lives without undue stress.

Aligned with its own goal of facilitating skills development and learning, Booyco Engineering extends its support to other non-profit organisations concentrating on tertiary education. The company particularly backs educational initiatives that align with its business operations, thereby creating a synergy between its corporate goals and social investment endeavours.

“This strategic approach not only fosters a knowledgeable and skilled workforce but also ensures that the beneficiaries are aptly prepared for employment opportunities within and beyond Booyco Engineering,” Spies says.

Booyco Engineering’s CSI goes beyond mere token gestures of support, and the company is engaged deeply and sincerely with its beneficiary organisations, mirroring a commitment that is both strategic and heartfelt.

“By supporting organisations like Frida Hartley Shelter, we can not only provide immediate relief to women and children in distress but also invest in the long-term development and empowerment of individuals who have been marginalised and disadvantaged” he continues.

The alliance with Frida Hartley Shelter and other similar organisations reflects the company’s vision of a corporate identity that is deeply intertwined with social upliftment and empowerment, making a significant impact where it truly matters. This dual focus on immediate aid and sustainable development underscores Booyco Engineering’s approach to corporate social responsibility – an approach that is both responsible and visionary.


With its focus on innovation in mining, Sandvik Mining and Rock Solutions has introduced AutoMine® Core, a comprehensive automation platform for mass mining applications.

According to David Hallett, Vice President: Automation at Sandvik Mining and Rock Solutions, the platform supports customers ramping up from manual operation to fully autonomous production. Three trends drive innovation in the mining sector, says Hallett: electrification, digitalisation and automation. 

“When it comes to automation in particular, the focus is on improving productivity and safety,” he says. “Safety considerations include how people can be removed from hazardous environments, as well as gaining more productivity by operating during a shift change, for example.”

As automated machines operate in a more controlled manner than those in manual operations, there is also a significant reduction in total cost of ownership with regards to equipment, he notes. The launch of AutoMine® Core builds on the success of AutoMine®’s Fleet and Manual Production Monitoring (MPM) offerings, which are used in over 100 mines globally. Some mines have been able to reduce their fleets by up to 50% through efficiency gains with automation. There have also been reports of 55% increases in production.

“AutoMine Core is a combination of 20 years of experience built on our AutoMine Fleet and MPM products,” he says. “We have now consolidated our systems under one platform, ensuring that our systems are interoperable, which greatly benefits our customers.” 

A unique feature that differentiates AutoMine® Core is its advanced traffic management system that enables operators to easily control the traffic flow of multi-machine operations. It allows them to handle complex operating situations, resulting in greater flexibility and mining output. Hallet adds that the platform allows a fleet interface with secondary or external systems – such as crushers – that are available in the area.

Furthermore, the AutoMine® Core platform is designed to accommodate multiple levels of interoperability for third-party OEMs. The platform’s safety system allows miners to segment large extraction areas, allowing the simultaneous operations of both manual and automated equipment.  Hallett highlights that a large part of the success of the company’s automation offerings is based on working closely with its customers and understanding their unique requirements. 

“We engage with key customers in the early stages of our product development and engineering, incorporating their feedback and input into new solutions,” he explains. “This close relationship allows us to develop products that can address the majority of the needs within the market.” 


When ambient temperatures become very hot or cold, concrete users can struggle to achieve the required strength and workability – but there are admixtures for those challenges.

Patrick Flannigan, Technical Manager at CHRYSO Southern Africa, explains that high temperatures cause concrete to develop higher initial strength, but reduce the strength development over the long term. Very cold weather creates the opposite effect, causing lower strength gain initially but higher strength gain later.

When temperatures drop below 5°C, the slower hydration process could even cause extended bleeding. At temperatures lower than that, there is a risk that the water in the concrete will freeze. Water expands by 9% when it freezes, so it could even cause cracking if the concrete has not reached sufficient strength.

“To deal with very hot weather, customers use our CHRYSO® Tard range of plasticisers, which ensures enough open time,” he says. “This retarder slows down the hydration of cement by momentarily blocking the surface of the cement particles and delaying the time of initial setting.”

For cold weather, he recommends the CHRYSO® XEL range of chloride and non-chloride accelerators, which help with early strength gain of concrete. To deal with the risk of water freezing in the concrete, CHRYSO® Air helps by adding extra air to the mix. Instead of cracking the concrete, the freezing water will expand into the capillary openings that the air entrainer has created. These low temperatures are not that common in South Africa, but more relevant to higher elevated areas such as the Lesotho Highlands.

“Another form of extreme weather leading to challenges with concrete is heavy rainfall that causes flooding,” he says. “Protection of concrete in rainy conditions is of the utmost importance, as this will eliminate surface blemishes on exposed concrete areas.”

Flannigan explains that concrete that is in contact with standing or flowing water needs to be protected, especially in terms of its finish. “CHRYSO® Aquabeton is the ideal solution for concrete that needs to be placed underwater, and this allows concrete to be cast in standing or flowing water.”

Flannigan points out that CHRYSO’s solutions are driven not only by functionality but by a global commitment to sustainability. The company develops admixtures specially for certain types of cement and construction material. This allows a wider range of material to be sourced close to site, even if it is high in clay content, for example.

“This reduces the distances that material needs to be transported and therefore keeps vehicle carbon emissions to a minimum,” he says.


Custom engineered chutes are scientifically designed and simulated prior to manufacturing by Weba Chute Systems to give customers optimal uptime – but the company has also innovated ways to keep these transfer points well maintained.

Channeling the flow of mined material is among the most onerous tasks on any mine, and Weba Chute Systems designs and manufactures its solutions to withstand these demanding applications. The considerable wear on the components in a transfer point, however, requires constant monitoring and attention. The company has therefore developed a range of responses to help customers to manage this important responsibility.

According to Izak Potgieter, ISO Systems Manager at Weba Chute Systems, a vital role is played by the company’s technical advisors, who visit customers on a regular basis to check the operation and condition of the chutes.

“To make their work efficient, and to quickly provide the customer with relevant information, we developed our own chute inspection app for our technicians,” says Potgieter. “This allows them to capture the necessary data and photographs from their inspection, to generate an automated report to guide the customer in their decisions.”

The company also has a reliability model which tracks the duty and condition of each chute over time, and which can inform a predictive maintenance programme. Through its decades of experience, the company has developed a detailed understanding of chutes’ wear trends under varying material conditions.

“Using these models, we can help customers to predict – weeks, months and even years in advance – which aspects of the chute will need maintenance,” he says. “This allows the necessary planning to be done, so that unexpected failures do not occur.”

He notes that Weba Chute Systems’ ISO 9001 accredited quality processes ensure that the spare parts manufactured at its advanced Wadeville facility are consistently what customers require. Collaborating with customers on their maintenance needs therefore also ensures that the right parts are available when required.

Faizel Mahomed, Client Services Manager at Weba Chute Systems, explains that mining conditions at customers’ operations can be expected to change over time. More abrasive ore, for example, or larger lump sizes, may result in faster wear on certain components.

“This makes our close contact with customers even more vital, as we can work with them to adapt to changing conditions,” says Mahomed. “Sometimes increased wear is unavoidable, and we develop innovations that meet these demands – such as our collaboration with a foundry partner to develop liners with 600 Brunel hardness for longer life.”

Among the faster wearing items on a chute is the lip, and to save time Weba Chute Systems has developed a quick-release lip for ease of replacement. He also points to the company’s innovation of a liner that can be replaced from the outside of the chute. This makes it safer and more efficient for the technician, who does not need to enter the chute. Chutes are often mission-critical for a mine, emphasises Potgieter, and in these cases the customer can take advantage of Weba Chute Systems’ maintenance contracts. These arrangements put a dedicated team on site to monitor and report on equipment condition, and to coordinate the necessary maintenance with the mine’s responsible officials.


In the realm of civil engineering, maintaining fairness and stability is paramount. To achieve this, effective dispute resolution is indispensable, and this is where the Bargaining Council for the Civil Engineering Industry (BCCEI) play a vital role in this sector.

Merle Denson, the Dispute Resolution Centre Manager at the BCCEI, stresses that dispute resolution is not only a means to solve conflicts but also a vital aspect of good business management. “It prevents conflicts from escalating, saving both time and money, and additionally, it offers an alternative to costly court proceedings,” she says.

The BCCEI’s Dispute Resolution Centre plays a central role in handling industry-specific disputes, and is accredited by the Commission for Conciliation, Mediation, and Arbitration (CCMA). This ensures that disputes are efficiently resolved within legal parameters. The Dispute Resolution Centre boasts a panel of commissioners with deep industry knowledge and experience, guaranteeing expert handling of complex civil engineering issues. Moreover, it prioritises accessibility by scheduling cases regionally, minimising financial burdens and time constraints for parties.

Denson says that in addition to this and in response to the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Dispute Resolution Centre also offers online dispute resolution services, enhancing efficiency and reducing costs.

The accessibility of the Dispute Resolution Centre’s services is ensured through a funding mechanism, where employers and employees contribute to the cost of dispute resolution via a monthly levy.

In dismissal cases referred to the Dispute Resolution Centre, the process involves referral, notice of hearing, conciliation, arbitration and potential settlement agreements. Commissioners and arbitrators, appointed by the BCCEI, are crucial in ensuring fair and efficient resolution.

“Effective dispute resolution is vital for the civil engineering industry’s stability and fairness, and the BCCEI and its Dispute Resolution Centre provide accessible, expert and efficient mechanisms for resolving industry-specific disputes, fostering a harmonious work environment,” Denson concludes. The BCCEI’s primary goals and objectives extend beyond dispute resolution as a bargaining council. Its responsibilities encompass concluding and enforcing collective agreements, preventing and resolving labour disputes, administering dispute resolution functions, establishing and managing funds for dispute resolution, promoting and initiating training and education schemes, developing proposals for labour policies and legislation, providing industrial support services and extending services to non-parties in the industry.


Amid growing demand for its crushing and screening services, Trollope Mining Services, one of the largest opencast mining contractors in Africa, has in the past three years taken delivery of a large fleet of Metso machines from Pilot Crushtec. 

With nearly 500 pieces of equipment in its fleet, Trollope has over the years established itself as the go-to contractor in the opencast mining sector in southern Africa. Currently operating in South Africa, Namibia and Botswana, the company has also previously executed projects in the DRC and Guinea. The company operates across commodities including but not limited to coal, platinum, copper, andalusite, gold, phosphate, lithium, iron ore, manganese, diamonds and limestone.

To establish itself as a total solutions provider in the opencast mining contracting fraternity, Trollope Mining Services added a crushing and screening division to its business in 2016. Managing Director, Guy Hopkins says that in the past three years the division has seen exponential growth on the back of some major projects, necessitating an expansion of the crushing and screening fleet.  

Following the fleet expansion programme, Trollope Mining Services now operates a total of 15 machines. Of note is that the whole fleet is made up of only Metso machines. “We prefer Metso machines because of our experience with the equipment,” he says. “Fundamentally, the design and build quality of these machines are unmatched. Our buying decision is also influenced by the technological evolution of the Metso offering, which allows us to run ‘hands off’ operations. Apart from improved efficiencies, technology paves the way for improved safety on mining sites.”

Of its 15 Metso machines, six are dual-powered units, making Trollope Mining Services the biggest operator of Metso hybrid crushers and screens in southern Africa, confirms Charl Marais, Sales Manager at Pilot Crushtec. The dual-power fleet comprises two Lokotrack® LT120E™ jaw crushers, a Lokotrack LT330D™ cone crusher and three Lokotrack® ST2.8E™ scalping screens. These were expressly purchased for a project in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. 

With their ability to have both electricity and diesel as power sources, Marais says dual-power solutions provide the best of both worlds – significant fuel savings and a marked reduction in carbon emissions. “Significant cost reduction is achieved when the machines are connected to the grid,” explains Marais.

“Given the high cost of diesel, dual-powered solutions help reduce operating costs for our customers. In our experience, the cost of running bi-power machines off the grid is 1/20 the cost of running them off a diesel engine. There is therefore a major cost benefit for our customers’ operations,” says Hopkins.

Apart from the Metso build quality, Hopkins says the complementary aftermarket support from Pilot Crushtec is crucial to ensuring high uptime. “In all our buying decisions, having a partner that we can trust for the long term is fundamental. Pilot Crushtec plays a crucial role in supporting us with all the necessary spares and technical expertise to keep our Metso machines running,” concludes Hopkins. 


As the important mineral component of its cement, limestone will soon be mined from a new deposit by AfriSam’s Ulco cement plant in the Northern Cape. 

The relocated quarry will be capable of providing security of supply for about 40 years, and will need to deliver around two million tons of limestone to Ulco each year. According to Gavin Venter, Manager Saldanha and Strategic Projects at AfriSam, the enabling infrastructure for this quarry has been significant. 

“After conducting a number of wide-spaced prospecting campaigns – as well as close-spaced drilling across 100 hectares – we identified the best limestone reserves on our mining right on the opposite side of the R31 national road, which runs between the new site and the plant,” says Venter. “This means it is necessary to construct tunnels under the road to facilitate safe access between the new quarry site and the existing plant. Adding to the complexity is that the large Gamagara water pipeline runs parallel to the road.”

The R31 road between Kimberley and Postmasburg carries high volumes of large ore trucks and abnormal load mining equipment. It will be diverted in early 2024 to accommodate this traffic for about six months while extensive excavation and civil engineering work is undertaken to construct the tunnel underpass system. 

“In compliance with the road authority’s requirements, the tunnels will traverse the full 32 metre width of the road reserve – to allow for future road widening, in addition to the pipeline servitude,” he says. “The two tunnels themselves will be over 50 metres in length, and will be separated to enhance safety as there will be counterflow traffic to and from the plant.”

The 5 metre high by 5 metre wide tunnels will be excavated to 12 metres below the R31 road level, and constructed as large culverts with steel reinforced in-situ cast concrete. The design work ensured a tunnel alignment to suit the future possibility of an in-pit crusher and conveyer belt. If such an option was financially justified in future, it would provide an alternative method to feed crushed material to the existing pre-blending stockpiles. 

The civils works also has to accommodate the 700 mm diameter Gamagara pipeline, supplying the Northern Cape with water from the Vaal River. To avoid the risk of disrupting this water supply, a concrete bridge has been constructed parallel to the existing pipeline, inside which a new 100 metre stretch of pipeline was laid. 

“This provided the necessary support for the pipeline so that excavation and controlled blasting can be conducted underneath,” he explains. “As a further precaution, there is also a 100 mm per second vibration limit applied to any blasting activity around the pipeline bridge.”

Work on the pipe bridge began in late 2022 and excavation work began in the third quarter of 2023, creating the initial slot on the south side of the R31. Once the road is diverted, the excavation of the tunnels can begin and this is expected to be complete by end February 2024. This will be followed by the construction of the two tunnels. The supply of readymix – which will include AfriSam cement – will come from Kimberley, about 80 km south. With ambient daytime temperatures that can rise to 40 degrees, this will require careful use of admixtures to achieve the required slump by the time readymix trucks arrive on site.

“Mining is expected to begin in the second half of 2024, with an unusual topography in which the quarry will be mined into an escarpment,” says Hannes Meyer, Cementitious Executive at AfriSam. “Transportation of mined material is therefore mainly downhill. With the gradient of the haul road slopes limited to 5 degrees, AfriSam’s truck-trailer combinations have been designed to be much more energy efficient than conventional off-road dump trucks.”

AfriSam commissioned various specialist studies as part of its environmental impact assessment (EIA), to investigate the new quarry’s potential effects on wetlands, terrestrial life, hydrology, heritage and traffic. Authorisation was granted to mine in the vicinity of water features on the proposed mining area, with a seasonal drainage line that had to be diverted to avoid the exit slot of the new haul road.